Turismo ecológico en Rusia
The term “ecological tourism” was introduced in the eightieth years of 20 centuries by ecologist Hector Tseballosom Laskuriey. In Russia the idea of leisure, safe for nature and useful for the man, got accustomed practically immediately – for the completely intelligible reasons.
For the first time the term was used by the bureau of international youth tourism “Satellite” of the Irkutsk regional committee of VLKSM (All-Union Lenin Young Communist League) in the development of pedestrian route “Krugobaykalskaya railroad”. In this case the adjective “ecological” meant that a stay of tourists on the route must minimally be reflected on the state of locality, but themselves they had to so much not rest, as this locality study. I.e., the term bore moral, than economic load faster.
Today ecotourism – in brief – journey into the untouched by civilization corners of nature. The purposes of this tourism can be most different. Three forms of ecological journeys are distinguished by this principle.
Scientific ecotourism, whose basic purpose is collection of material, observation and study. Recently in such trips participates increasingly more volunteers – people without the specialized formation: they search for the rare forms of plants, study the behavior of insects and animals.
Another form – cognitive ecotourism. Here central objective is amateurish observation of the most interesting, famous, salient objects in the attended region: plant, the representative of fauna, cave, canyon, or lake. This is probably the most extended form of ecotourism.
And still there is the recreational tourism, which includes the sport trips: ski, mountain climbing, horse or foot marches and simple leisure in the wild. This trip will make one forget about the dusty fuss of city and feel how this is good – to live on the Earth.
Main distinctive special feature of ecological tourism is the increased attention to the retention of natural resources. In this case special interest is due to the fact that the local population, which obtains benefit from the tourists, will apply large efforts for the protection of nature of its edge. Just as all interested in the trips parties – including tour operators, local authorities and, it goes without saying, tourists themselves. In this case to the general benefit the overall level of ecological formation will rise as well. Generally ecological tourism is the only form of the tourism, in which all participants are vitally interested in the retention of nature – its basic resource.
Thus, particular trips to the bosom of wild nature are implied by ecological tourism. However, with the appropriate expansion of term to eco-trips can be attributed, for example, scientific expeditions, the summer ecological of camp – both school and children's and much more. Even business trips – with the observance of the specified conditions – fall into the discharge of ecological.
Conditions are following.
One of the basic principles – as has already been spoken, the tendency to reduce to a minimum of consequence for the local ecological and sociocultural system. Furthermore, the assistance to protection of this system as a whole and of its separate monuments and of special features becomes the purpose. The material interest of local residents and the economic effectiveness of tourism for the stability of the development of region are also important.
According to different estimations of ecotourism composes today approximately 20% of entire market for world tourism and this number grows. As grows the consciousness of the population of planet and understanding of the fact that if we do not care about it – this will make no one.
In Russia ecological tourism is one of the very promising trends. What is completely understandable as if we consider the enormous number of preserves in the country.
One of the main tourist zones is Baykal. The representatives of the most different countries stop here every year in order to see the deepest lake on the Earth, furthermore – the sixth in the world on the area – the same as, for example, the area of Belgium or Denmark. To receive evidence that above Baykal it is no clouds, and to touch the trees, which began grow in the past millennium.
One additional center of ecotourism is in the mountains of Altai. Here one can observe the sociocultural structure, which was conceived of hundred years ago and not practically changed up to now. Here one arrives in order to visit The Teletskoe lake, which was being formed in the cavity on the spot of ancient glacier, and famous Chuyka circuit. Here is located the highest Siberia mountain the Belukha and the center of Asia – Northern Shambala.
Many tourists come into continuously covered with forests Karelia – “the lungs of Europe”. In Karelia is located one of the largest lakes of Europe – Lake Onega.
Every year thousands of foreign tourists from Germany, Finland, Italy, USA and Great Britain arrive into these corners of Russia. And we can assume that because of the state programs, aimed at the development of the tourist possibilities of reserved places, the number of tourists will increase.